1902 born in Smillov, Czechoslovakia, 1917 apprentice in portrait studio of Frantisek Drtikol. 1923 meets modern art theorist Karel Teige; joins avant-garde group "Devetsil", exhibits in Photosalon, Paris 1926 works in studio of Manuel Frères, Paris. 1927 photographs for the weekly "Pestrý týden" and for the avant-garde theater "Osvobozené divadlo", Prague. 1928–1935 works in various studios in Paris; interest in genre and spontaneous photography. 1935–1951 establishes own portrait studio in Prague. 1951 joins association "Fotografia" and renews creative experimentation involving unusual technical approaches.