1896 born in Kolin, Bohemia. 1911–1913 learns trade of bookbinding; first attempts at photography. 1915–1920 military service, right arm wounded and amputated; decides to become photographer. 1920 becomes member of Amateur Photography Club. 1922 studies photography with Karel Novak at School of Graphic Arts in Prague. 1924 founder, with Jaromír Funke and other avant-garde photographers, of the Czech Photographic Society. 1924–1928 series "Contrasts" on reconstruction of St. Vitus Cathedral; earns title of Official Photographer of the City of Prague. 1928–1936 commercial work in his studio, landscapes and views of Prague with Moholy-Nagy, Heartfield, Man Ray, Rodchenko and others. 1940–1945 discovers contact printing and ceases to enlarge; continues panorama of Prague and countryside, begins "Window of my Atelier" series, "Labyrinths". 1945–1960 photographs "The Magic Garden" and "The Garden of the Lady Sculptor" series. Died in 1976.